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Fluoride Poisoning Bibliography

Allergy/Hypersensitivity to Fluoride Inhaled Fluorides– Animal Studies

Allergy to Topical Fluorides

Occupational Fluoride Poisoning

Fluoride & the Immune System



de Vos G, et al. (2004). Effects of fluoride and mercury on human cytokine response in vitro. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113(Suppl 1): S66. (See abstract.)

Goldman D. (2001). Tacrolimus ointment for the treatment of steroid-induced rosacea: a preliminary report. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 44: 995-8. (See abstract.)

Grimbergen GW. (1974). A Double Blind Test for Determination of Intolerance to Fluoridated Water (Preliminary Report). Fluoride 7:146-152.

Feltman R, Kosel G. (1961). Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluorides - Fourteen years of investigation - Final report. Journal of Dental Medicine 16: 190-99. (See excerpts.)

Feltman R. (1956). Prenatal and postnatal ingestion of fluoride salts: A progress report. Dental Digest 62: 353-357. (See excerpt.)

Lewis A, Wilson CW. (1985). Fluoride hypersensitivity in Mains tap water demonstrated by skin potential changes in guinea-pigs. Medical Hypotheses 16: 397-402. (See abstract.)

Prival MJ. (1972). Fluorides and human health. Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington D.C. pp. 23-25. (See excerpt.)

Shea JJ, et al. (1967). Allergy to fluoride. Annals of Allergy 25:388-91. (See study.)

Spittle B. (1993). Allergy and hypersensitivity to fluoride. Fluoride 26(4):267-73. (See paper.)

Waldbott, George, et al, (1978).  Fluoridation – The Great Dilemma, Lawrence, Kansas:  Coronado Press, Inc.

Waldbott GL. (1968). Hydrofluorosis in the U.S.A. Fluoride 1: 94-102.

Waldbott GL. (1958). Allergic reactions from fluorides. International Archives of Allergy 12: 347-355. (See study.)

Waldbott GL. (1956). Incipient fluorine intoxication from drinking water. Acta Medica Scandinavica 156: 157-168. (See summary.)

Waldbott GL. (1956). Incipient fluorine intoxication from drinking water, Int. Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, vol 9 241-9.

 Zanfanga PE. (1976). Allergy to fluoride. Fluoride 9(1): 36-41. (See paper.)

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Blasik LG, Spencer SK. (1979). Fluoroderma. Archives of Dermatology 115:1334-5. (See abstract.)

Brun R. (2004). Recurrent benign aphthous stomatitis and fluoride allergy. Dermatology 208: 181. (See report + commentary.)

Douglas TE. (1957). Fluoride dentifrice and stomatitis. Northwest Medicine 56: 1037-1039. (See study.)

McCaffery K. (2003). Fluoride and dermatitis. Journal of the American Dental Association 134: 1166-1167.

Mellette JR, et al. (1983). Perioral dermatitis. Journal of the Association of Military Dermatologists 9: 3-8. (See study.)

Mellette JR, et al. (1976). Fluoride tooth paste: A cause of perioral dermatitis. Archives of Dermatology 112: 730-731. (See study)

Saunders MA. (1975). Fluoride toothpastes: A cause of acne-like eruptions. Archives of Dermatology 111: 793. (See study.)

Shea JJ, et al. (1967). Allergy to fluoride. Annals of Allergy 25:388-91. (See study.)

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Butler JE, Satam M, Ekstrand J. (1990). Fluoride: an adjuvant for mucosal and systemic immunity. Immunology Letters 26:217-20. See abstract at:

Gabler WL, Leong PA. (1979). Fluoride inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Dental Research 58(9):1933-9. (See abstract.)

Gibson S. (1992). Effects of fluoride on immune system function. Complementary Medicine Research 6: 111-113. (See excerpts.)

Greenberg SR. (1982). Leukocyte response in young mice chronically exposed to fluoride. Fluoride 15: 119-123. (See abstact.)

Jain SK, Susheela AK. (1987). Effect of sodium fluoride on antibody formation in rabbits. Environmental Research 44: 117-125. (See abstract.)

Loftenius A, et al. (1999). Fluoride augments the mitogenic and antigenic response of human blood lymphocytes in vitro. Caries Research 33:148-55. (See abstract.)

Susheela AK, Jain SK. (1983). Fluoride-induced haematological changes in rabbits. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30: 388-93. (See abstract.)

Sutton P. (1991). Is the ingestion of fluoride an immunosuppressive practice? Medical Hypotheses 35: 1-3. (See paper)

Sutton P. (1987). Does fluoride ingestion affect developing immune system cells? Medical Hypotheses 23: 335-336. (See paper.)

Wilkinson PC. (1983). Effects of fluoride on locomotion of human blood leucocytes in vitro. Archives of Oral Biology 28: 415-8. (See abstract.)

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Aydin G, Cicek E, Akdogan M, Gokalp O. Histopathological and biochemical changes in lung tissues of rats following administration of fluoride over several generations. Journal of Applied Toxicology 2003; 23:437-46.

Chen X-Q, Machida K, Ando M. Effects of fluoride aerosol inhalation on mice. Fluoride. 1999; 2:153-61.

Davis RK, Stemmer KL, Jolley WP, Larson, EE. The effects of the subjection of dogs to the inhalation and ingestion of calcium fluoride. Unpublished work from the Kettering Laboratory in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Industrial Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 1962. (Kettering Laboratory Library.)

Klepinger ML. Effects from repeated short-term inhalation of fluorine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1969;14:192-200. (See Mullenix, 2005, for explanation.)

Yamamoto S, Katagiri K, Ando M, Chen X-Q. Suppression of pulmonary antibacterial defenses mechanisms and lung damage in mice exposed to fluoride aerosol. J Toxicol Environ Health. 2001;62:485-94.

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Bennion J, Franzblau A. Chemical pneumonitis following household exposure to hydrofluoric acid. Am J Ind Med. 1997; 31:474-8.

Boillat MA, et al. (1980). Radiological criteria of industrial fluorosis. Skeletal Radiology 5: 161-165.

Carnow BW, Conibear SA. (1981). Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 14: 172-181.

Czerwinski E, et al. (1988). Bone and joint pathology in fluoride-exposed workers. Arch Environ Health 43(5):340-3.

Czerwinski E, Lankosz W. (1977). Fluoride-induced changes in 60 retired aluminum workers. Fluoride 10: 125-136.

Dale PP, McCauley HB. Dental conditions in workers chronically exposed to dilute and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Journal of the American Dental Association 1948; 37: 131-40, 24.

Dale PP, McCauley HB. Oral conditions in workers chronically exposed to dilute and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. United States Atomic Energy Commission University of Rochester, Nov 1944;MDDC-995: 1-8.

Dale PP, McCauley HB. “C” Study. A study of dental conditions in workers exposed to dilute and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid in production. University of Rochester, January 6, 1944.

Dale PP, McCauley HB. “C” Study. A study of dental conditions in workers exposed to dilute and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid in production. Statistical Report. University of Rochester, April 1, 1944.

Derryberry OM, Bartholomew MD, Fleming RBL. Fluoride exposure and worker health. The health status of workers in a fertilizer manufacturing plant in relation to fluoride exposure. Arch Environ Health. 1963; 6: 503-14.

Franke J, et al. (1975). Industrial fluorosis. Fluoride 8: 61-83.

Franzblau A, Sahakian N. Asthma following household exposure to hydrofluoric acid. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44:321-4.

Gosselin RE, Hodge HC, Smith RP, Gleason MN. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Acute Poisoning. 4th ed. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1976: 78.

Hodge HC, Smith FA. Occupational fluoride exposure. J Occup Med. 1977;19:12-39.

Lund K, Refsnes M, Ramis I, et al. Human exposure to hydrogen fluoride induces acute neutrophilic, eicosanoid, and antioxidant changes in nasal lavage fluid. Inhalation Toxicol.2002;14:119-32.

Lund K, Ekstrand J, Boe J, Sostrand P, Kongerud J. Exposure to hydrogen fluoride: an experimental study in humans of concentrations of fluoride in plasma, symptoms, and lung function. Occup Environ Med. 1997;54:32-7.

Mullenix, Phyllis J. (2005).  Fluoride Poisoning:  A Puzzle with Hidden Pieces.  International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 11(4), Oct/Dec: 404-414.  (FTRC funded.) (See abstract.) (See paper.)

Roholm K. Fluorine Intoxication. A Clinical–Hygienic Study. London, England: H. K. Lewis and Company, 1937.Stokinger HE. Toxicity following inhalation of fluorine and hydrogen fluoride. In: Voegtlin C,Hodge HC (eds). Pharmacology and Toxicology of Uranium Compounds. New York: McGraw Hill, 1949:1021-57.

Soyseth V, Kongerud J. Prevalence of respiratory disorders among aluminium potroom workers in relation to exposure to fluoride. Br J Ind Med. 1992;49:125-30.

Sjogren B. Fluoride exposure and respiratory symptoms in welders. International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health. 2004;10:310-2.

Waldbott GL, Lee JR. (1978). Toxicity from repeated low-grade exposure to hydrogen fluoride - Case report. Clinical Toxicology 13: 391-402.

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