The following is an excerpt from the 1977 paper "Occupational Fluoride Exposure" by Drs. Harold Hodge and Frank Smith (Vol. 19; pp. 12-39), where they discuss the findings of the following study:

Kuznetsova LS. (1969). The effects of the various operations in the manufacture of superphosphate on the sex organs of female workers. Gig Tr i Prof Zabol. 13: 21-25.

"Data are available from a single epidemiological study of gynecologic problems in female workers in a superphosphate manufacturing plant (Kuznetsova 1969). The exposed group 302 women mostly 20-40 years old and the control group 309 office employees and housewives not exposed to F. Dust concentrations in the superphosphate plant ranged from 5 to 57 mg/m3; F concentrations ranged from about 0.3 to 2.6 mg/m3. Irregularities of menstruation were considerable more frequent (five or six times) in the workers; the frequency increased with dustiness, not with age, but markedly (two times) with employment over six years. Inflammation of the uterus, cervix and vagina occurred four times as frequently in workers, mostly in women exposed to plain and granulated superphosphate.

No differences were noted between exposed and control groups in the numbers or the course of pregnancies, miscarriages, and births. During pregnancy, the plant workers more frequently showed (a) toxicosis with hypotension and threatened abortion, and (b) 'untimely' discharge of amniotic fluid and 'weakness of birth activity'. Additional epidemiological studies are needed."

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